Patella Luxation
patella luxation is thought to be a genetic
orthopedic condition, more seen in the papillon
breed than any other condition.
the dog has a shallow groove in the fibular
that lets the ligament, which holds the patella
(knee- cap) in position, slip out to either one of the
the severity of the condition is graded from one
to four.
lameness in both or one hind leg are a symptom of
patella luxation.
less severe grades can be treated by exercise
restrictions and anti-inflammatory medications
surgery may be an option depending on the
severity of the condition.
Bad Breath - Halitosis

Bad Breath is a common  complaint in dogs and cats;
especially in Toy Breeds.
Oral, periodontal disease  is the most common cause,
where plaque, unhealthy tissues, decomposing food
particles retained delivers the sour milk odor.
Small breeds are more prone to oral disease
because the teeth are closer together, the smaller
animals live longer, and their owners are more
prone to feed softer food.
Older age more predisposed.
In most cases there are no clinical signs other than
the mal-odor.
Daily home care (brushing) aids in the removal of
plaque, helps control dental disease and odor.         
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cryptorchid /monorchid
this condition occurs in males, where  one or
both testicles fail to descend.
the testicles should be in the scrotum by 12
weeks of age.
it is believed to be a genetic condition, and it
may be passed by one or both parents. there
is also some evidence that it could be caused
by environmental toxins .
since there is a higher risk of testicular
cancer ,neutering the dog is highly
recommended, where the missing testicle
should be also surgically removed from the
all toy breeds are susceptible to
it is very important to use safe products.
isoflurane and sevoflurane are prefered
gas anesthetics. consult with  your
Health Concerns in Papillons & Phalenes
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA)

This condition is  not often seen in Papillons, but it is a genetic condition, where both parents
must be carriers to produce such a puppy with pra.
it causes blindness somewhere between the ages of 4 - 8 years.
Reverse sneezing

it sounds like gagging +-coughing in a
reverse sneezing (hurfing) does happen in
papillon puppies as well as in adults quite
often. it  can happen at any time, but often,
when exited, playing,  on a walk,or  stepping
out  from a warm house ,into a cold winter day.
you may can help to stop the condition by
massaging the dogs throat, offering a treat,
so the dog will swallow, or by blowing
gently into the nostrils.
make sure that your papillon has no other
respiratory condition, as a kennel cough, or a
collapsing trachea (tracheal malacia)
Papillons may  be affected by the
following conditions:
  • Luxating patella
  • Progressive retinal atrophy
  • Reverse sneezing
  • Bad Breath
  • Cryptorchid/monorchid
  • anesthesia